Effects of steroids on human body

                      

                      STEROIDS-DID YOU KNOW ABOUT THAT ?


The adrenal gland has medulla and cortex. Adrenal cortex secretes steroidal hormones.The adrenal medulla secretes adrenaline and noradrenaline.
Synthesis and release of glucocorticoids is controlled by anterior  pituitary ( adrenocorticotropic hormone-ACTH ). which in turn stimulated by corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) it produced by hypothalamus. If u use long-term corticosteroids in large dose it will cause adrenal cortical atrophy.
Mechanism of action - 
1) On carbohydrate metabolism - the glucocorticosteroid stimulate glycogen ,and decrease peripheral utilization of glucose.
2) lipid metabolism - prolonged use of  glucocorticoids cause redistribution of body fat in different area like - face , neck , shoulder etc.
3) Protein metabolism - it cause protein breakdown(muscle wasting)
4) Calcium metabolism - it increase osteoclasts and decrease osteoblasts activity.
5) Skeletal muscle - skeletal muscle need corticosteroid for normal function . weakness occurs in both condition -hypo or hypercorticism . muscle weakness in hypo. due to inadequate circulation and hypokalemia in hypercorticism.
6) In GIT it cause peptic ulcer.
7) it is powerful anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects.
 Therapeutic uses of Glucocorticoids -
Rheumatoid arthritis
Osteoarthritis
Gout
Rheumatic fever
Allergic diseases
Bronchial asthma
Skin diseases - psoriasis, keloids etc.
Cerebral oedema
Shock
Organ transplantation
Contraindication -
Hypertension,peptic ulcer, diabetes mellitus , osteoporosis , glucoma , renal failure , epilepsy .
Adverse Reactions -
A single dose of glucocorticoids is harmless, it is a life saving drug in anaphylactic shock, acute adrenal insufficiency  etc. if u give the glucocorticosteroids dose more the 2-3 weeks it cause a number of undesirable effects -
1. Metabolic effects - Hyperglycemia.
2. Cushing's habitus - abnormal fat distribution like moon face , buffalo hump and thin limbs.
3. GIT - peptic ulceration , haemorrhage or perforation.
4. Salt and water retantion - oedema , hypertension.
5. Muscle - muscle weakness and fatigability . long-term steroid therapy cause steroid myopathy.
6. Bone- osteoporosis.
7. Growth retardation
8. Long-term therapy depress the immunsystem and give opportunity to more infection like fungal , viral , bacterial etc.
9. Hypothalamic -pituitary-adrenal (HPA)axis supperession -it is more dangerous side effect of long-term therapy.
10. Central nervous system - Behavioural disturbances like nervousness ,insomnia, mood changes etc. 
by - Nisha  
MPT(neurology)
SGT University, Gurugram ..
Effects of steroids on human body Effects of steroids on human body Reviewed by The Scripten on May 02, 2020 Rating: 5

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